What it is Asthma?
Asthma is considered, by definition a chronic lung disease produced by a reactive airway. It is caused by severe constriction of bronchi secondary to hyper-reactivity producing a series of a crisis of wheezing and difficulty breathing. There are many factors related to asthma such as exposure to cigarette or tobacco smoke, weather change, physical exercises or emotional stress. It common during childhood but sometimes can appear during the adulthood.
What are its causes
Asthma has several possible causes but the accurate mechanism of onset remain unknown. Different studies have been demonstrated that the illness is a result of the combination of different factors
- Hereditary: positive family history, susceptibility to allergic reactions
- Environmental: Tobacco Smoke/Passive Smoking, dust, homes Carpets Upholstered Furniture, Pet Hair Pollen,s Pollutants Occupation (Chemical Exposure)
- Other Causes: Premature Birth, Low Birth Weight, Bronchiolitis
How can physiotherapy help with treating Asthma
The patients with asthma need to be evaluated by the physiotherapist. Asthma needs to be treated in a variety of ways with the aim to improve the breathing technique. Physiotherapy techniques are a complement to the medical management and should never be used as a replacement to prescribed medication, however, may reduce the dosage required
What Physiotherapy treatments assist (that Physiotherapy offers mostly and Cortisone/Corticosteroid injections otherwise if applicable)
Asthma produces episodes of dyspnea and hyperventilation. These symptoms are going to be the main reason for assistance from Physiotherapy. Physiotherapists treat asthma in a variety of ways with the aim to improve breathing technique. The techniques to relieve the asthma are in addition to the pharmacological treatment and should never be used as a replacement to prescribed medication, however, may reduce the dosage required. As part of the medical management in case of a crisis, the patient is going to need a high dose of steroids with the aim to reduce the hyperreactivity of the airways
Breathing techniques may have more benefit for mild-moderate asthma. The aim of breathing retraining is to normalize breathing patterns.
The best exercises for it if applicable
Physical training is very important in the management of Asthma with the aim to increase fitness and cardiorespiratory performance, reduce symptoms such as breathlessness and improve quality of life
- Breathing exercise
Diaphragmatic breathing exercise is widely used with the aim to prevent breathing abnormalities. It will increase the air redistribution to the lungs, maximize oxygenation and relieve dyspnea. Diaphragmatic – the patient should sit on the ground and should place both the hands on the rectus abdominal muscle or on the Erbs. The Patient should breathe in through the nose and feel abdomen go out. After that patient should breath out and feel abdomen go in. expiratory time should be double than inspiratory time. Do this for 10 to 15 times, twice a day. Pursed lip breathing – this technique prevents trapping of air into the lungs. It enhances distribution of air in all lobes of the lungs and reduces the difficulties of breathing. The patient should be comfortable in the position. The patient should breathe in through the nose and breathe out through the mouth as pursed lip or whistling. It creates vibrations of air which cause positive back pressure and maximizes oxygenation.
- Removal of secretions
There are some various techniques available for mobilizing and removing secretions. The percussions, huffing, and shaking techniques are used to mobilize the secretion Postural drainage, suctioning and coughing techniques are used to remove mobilized secretions. Active cycles of breathing and autogenic drainage are also used for this purpose
The patient should be in a tripod position while an asthmatic attack. Both hands should be on the ground with wide base and neck should be in forwarding flexion. It relieves breathing difficulties. Chest expansion exercise also improves air redistribution and oxygenation.