Cardiovascular disease what is it?
Cardiovascular disease is defined by different conditions that involve the cardiovascular system composed by the heart, blood vessels, or can be secondary to the sequelae of insufficient blood supply due to a diseased vascular supply. It is considered an illness with high mortality and morbidity. Actually, it represents around 80% of the mortality burden globally. The main cause is ischaemic or coronary heart disease, followed by stroke (both hemorrhagic and ischaemic), hypertensive heart disease or congestive heart failure.
What are the causes of cardiovascular disease?
There are different causes of Cardiovascular disease. All of them produce failure of the heart and the consequent cardiac failure with retention of fluids on the lung and the interstitial tissues.
- Ischaemic Heart Disease.
- Valvular disease
- Hypertensive cardiopathy
How can physiotherapy help
The physiotherapy is part of the rehabilitation programme provided to patients affected with cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise is reported to be clinically effective in improving a patient’s cardiac output, maximum heart rate, endurance, and arterial blood flow.
It is described that the practice of exercises in these patients may also improve the blood lipid profiles. For patients with any type of cardiovascular disease, is highly recommended to complete an aerobic exercise programme due to the proven reduction in long term risks of the disease. Aerobic exercises include run, walking and gentle cycling. These activities combined with the resistance strength training exercises have been demonstrated to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease.
Considered best exercise programme:
A tailored physiotherapy management programme is assessed and complete in patients with cardiovascular disease. According to the European Heart Association, the patient should be included in a Cardiac Rehabilitation as a part of ongoing management and prevention of deterioration. It is the process with the aim to engage patients with cardiac disease, with a multidisciplinary team of health professionals It is considered a very important form of management for people with cardiac disease.
Initially, rehabilitation was offered only to people recovering from a myocardial infarction (MI), but now it can be the offer to patients with a wide range of cardiac problems. To achieve the goals of cardiac rehabilitation a multidisciplinary team approach is required. This team should actively engage and effectively link with the health system. Cardiac rehabilitation should be offered to all patients with cardiac problems who would benefits. Very often it is indicated for patients with ischemic heart disease, heart attack, after coronary angioplasty, after coronary-aortic by-pass graft surgery and patients with chronic heart failure. The rehabilitation should begin as soon as possible in intensive care units, only if the patient is in a stable medical condition. The Intensity of rehabilitation depends on the patient´s condition and complications in an acute phase of the disease.